Professor Anastas Ishirkov was the founder of the modern Geography in Bulgaria who started his activity in the late 19th century. Under his leadership, the geographical science grew up in the first decades of 20th century which led to the establishment of Bulgarian Geographical Society on 09.11.1918. The headquarters of the Society was at Sofia University and remains there until now.

BGS plays a significant role in the issuing of scientific and popular science books, collections and journals. The most important scientific publications were Proceedings of the Bulgarian Geographical Society (from 1947 to 1992 with more than 20 volumes) and Problems of Geography in Bulgaria (from 1964 to 1978 – 5 volumes). Issued two scientific collections (1959, 1986) and three popular science journals: "Geographical Review," "Countries and Peoples" and "Geography" (in different periods up to 1993).

In the second half of the 20th century BGS organized regional branches, in almost all regional centers of Bulgaria, with members mainly teachers of geography. After 1990, some of these affiliates managed in the presence of local geographical enthusiasm to register as a sort of regional geographic Bulgarian societies and some of them are still active such as Kyustendil and Yambol.

After 1990 the Society's activity was hampered, although in 1993 its central leadership was replaced with 11younger scientists, chaired by prof. Peter V. Petrov and vice-president H. Borisov. Under the regulations of a legal Act from 2001 all organizations had to be registered under the provisions of this Act and make appropriate adjustments in the statutes. Due to a number of objective and subjective reasons this was not done and the Society went into liquidation process. In 2012 members of Geology and Geography Faculty of Sofia University "St. Kliment Ohridski" and the Department of Geography at NIGGG BAS started activities restore the legal status of the Society. For this purpose, new statutes were developed, which was based on the provisions of the first statutes of the Society from 1918. It was decided that the first Executive Committee consist of five people and a temporary term of six months.  During this time it would allow restoration of the membership of the Society and organize a general meeting at which regular Executive Committee to be chosen. As a Chair of the interim Executive Committee was elected prof. Petar Petrov, who was in this position  before 2001. In the temporary board were selected Stoyan Nedkov, Boyan Kulov, Alexander Kotsev and Desislava Poleganova. The registration of the new statute and the Executive Committee was established on 05.29.2014 by a decision of Sofia City Court, file №389 / 2014.

The first General Assembly of the restored Society was held on 08/11/2014 in Sofia University "St. Kliment Ohridski". There were 75 attended members from a total of 87 regular members at that date. The meeting has adopted the report of the temporary Executive Committee, and elected regular Executive Committee.